Brave New World | Questions and Answers

Brave New World | Questions and Answers

Brave New World Questions and Answers

  1. Discuss Huxley as a man belonging to an illustrious family.

Huxley was born in an illustrious family and had an outstanding ancestral background. Grandson of the renowned Victorian scientist Thomas Henry Huxley-a prominent disciple of Darwin and son of Leonard Huxley, a prominent literary figure, university lecturer, headmaster, and editor of the Cornhill Magazine. Aldous Huxley was born on July 26, 1894 in a village (Gedelming) of Surrey in England, as the third son of his parents. His mother, Julia Arnold, was a niece of the great English poet and critic Matthew Arnold and sister of Mrs. Humphrey Ward. One of Aldous’s brothers, Sir Julian Huxley, is a renowned biologist, and writer on scientific subjects. Such a family background may be said to have created in Aldous Huxley an interest in a variety of subjects ranging from anthropology to zoology, and from versification to mysticism.

  1. Give a description of Huxley’s educational career.

Having received his early education at a preparatory school in s village, Aldous Huxley went to Eton on a scholarship with the intention of studying to prepare himself for career in biology and medicine. But his education at Eton was seriously hampered because of his failing eyesight, when, at the age of 16, he contracted Keratitis, eye disease which resulted in almost total blindness giving up the plan of becoming a doctor, Huxley withdrew from Eton and learned to read the Braille script meant for the blind. Simultaneously, he continued to try to improve his eyesight with the help of operations and exercise. After two years of constant effort, he was able to read wish the help of the magnifying glass. He then joined the Balliel College, Oxford. He had a brilliant academic career there, and in 1915 he took a degree in English Literature and philosophy.

  1. Write a note on chief characteristics of Huxley as a novelists.

In Huxley’s novels, the cynicism, despair, disillusionment and anxiety of the first half of the 20th century have been reflected. He could not be deterred from utilizing his intellect despite his failing eyesight. His novels are not mere smoking stories but vehicles of serious ideas on a variety of subjects and social evils

Taking knowledge to be his own, he has scarcely left any of its branches unexplored. Literature, music, art, philosophy, science, religion, and so one, all are combined in his works. Huxley was a genius who employed his encyclopedic erudition and extraordinary talents as a writer to caution man against the dangers of an excessive involvement in the belief in scientific progress, material prosperity and bodily pleasure, cost of spiritual and moral values. He is a spokesman of be century, expressing almost all the views and ideas in a highly read manner.

  1. Define Science Fiction. Can Huxley’s ‘Brave New World’ be put in the category of Science Fiction?

The famous English novelist Kingsley Amis has given this definition of science fiction Science fiction is that class of prose narrative treating of a situation that could not arise in the world we know, but which is hypothesized on the basis of some innovation in science or technology, or pseudo-science or pseudo-technology. (New Maps of Hell, p. 18). According to this definition, the conditions existing in the fordian state of future may not exist at present in our world; but they are likely to exist in a world built upon the foundations of scientific and technological progress, that will be laid or mislaid because of man’s excessive dependence on science and its discoveries.

  1. Give the names of two novelists on whose pattern of tradition, Huxley has based his novel “Brave New World”?

The novel ‘Brave New World’ belongs to the tradition set by the authors of science fiction like the French Jules Verne and H.G. Wells who wrote ‘Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea’ and ‘War of the Worlds’ respectively.

  1. What type of future state has been presented in ‘Brave New World’?

In his novel ‘Brave New World’ Huxley presents a future state dominated by science which discovers how to produce life in laboratory Pain, diseases poverty and conflict find no place in the so called state.. Life and amusements remain ensured a mechanized system devised by science.

  1. Trace out the element of satire in Brave New World’ by Huxley.

It is a satire on the present as well as a fantastic vision of the future. In this novel, Huxley has satirized the idea of progress put forward by scientists and philosophers in a witty manner.

The negative and pessimistic vision of future presented by Huxley appears to be meant to be a satirical attack on the culmination of the unchecked scientific advancement in the modern age. However, a close look at the novel shows that the satire in it is not aimed so much at what will happen in future as at what is happening around us at present. The evils of an excessive dependence on science are not to come in future, they are already there. Man has already become a slave to science, and much of his life depends on the facilities provided by it. Like the Russian novel By Zamiatin,’ ‘Brave New World’ presents an anti-utopian vision the future to launch an attack on the present.

The writer cautions man against the life in a scientifically control world with its indoctrination, conditioning, test-Lube babies, free sex, and suppression of historical truth. In this novel Huxley has satirized the progress made with the help of science, suppressing the human traits like individuality, free will, creativity, emotions and natural instincts.

  1. Throw light on the theme of “Brave New World”?

‘Brave New World’ deals with the theme of science affecting human life, the process of dehumanization and the antagonism between the two worlds of scientific progress and primitive vitalism.

Huxley held definite views on various subjects and conditions on the modern age, and these subjects formed the themes of his novels, for example, he had his own approach to and views on matters related to science, progress and modern civilization, etc., and he took up these themes for his novels.

He realized the dangers of an over-dependence on science which brought in its wake an immense progress made by science tended to suppress the emotional and spiritual aspects of human life. Huxley dealt with this situation in ‘Brave New World’ which is concerned with the theme of what would become of man and the world he lives in, il such excessive subservience lo science and technology continued

“Brave New World” presents the picture of a distant future portrayed in order to satirize the present. There is an alarming tendency among human beings to make the best of the latest advances in the fields of scientific and technological knowledge. The life is gradually becoming mechanized and standardized, and there is occurring a corresponding less of human individuality and personal initiative

If these things are allowed to go on, man will become an automaton controlled and guided by the powers that be, with no feelings, emotions, sentiments and aspirations of his own. In a way, he will be dehumanized. This extreme situation, likely to arise in future, also forms a theme treated in Brave New World. By presenting it, Huxley actually wants to warn us against il. He deals with the present problem of over-population and the dangers attending it, by showing the production of children in laboratories in the future world, and letting them grow into manhood with complete serfdom to the rulers, and an absence of moral values in them.

  1. Discuss the plot and structure of “Brave New World’ by Huxley

Or Comment on the structural weaving at the Novel

‘Brave New World’ is brimful of ideas, and the desire to convey them effectively might not have allowed Huxley to construct his plot carefully and to weave a skillfully integrated structural pattern. Huxley had to say many clear things on various subjects and discuss, full account or which he managed to work into his plot and which were no stated by him separately as Orwell had to do in his novel ‘Nineteen Eighty-four.

‘Brave New World’ is a work of utopian science fiction and as such Presents & Vision of the future life based on science and technology contrast to the future, there is the present represented by the savage. Huxley had to organize  his structure in such a manner as to be able to present both the worlds. There is not much by way of action in the novel and most of the part of the novel is devoted to the depiction of the new world of future, and to conveying views about the comparative merits of that world and those of the present one.

A prominent characteristic of the plot structure of ‘Brave New World’ is its compressed manner of depicting the society which Huxley imagines to be in future. He says much briefly, and does not dilate or elucidate.

The plot of ‘Brave New World’ is quite skillfully constructed, even though it does not form the chief part in it. It is marked by Huxley’s inventiveness which helps him give the details of imaginary world of future that he portrays in the novel.

The material Huxley had to deal with was much varied and complex but he organized it in the texture of this story of novel very skillfully. He did not heap up unnecessary details but never failed to include necessary ones.

  1. Write a brief note on Huxley’s novelistic art and technique.

Or Huxley shows mastery over technique and uses variety of techniques to suit his purpose. Discuss.

Huxley’s novels abound in Swift- like irony, and almost each one of them conveys his ironic vision. The element of irony is found in his plot construction, his characterization, his presentation of situation, and the structure of his novels.

Huxley shows a mastery over technique and adopts variations of technique to suit his requirements. The comprehensive counterpoint technique in ‘Point Counter Point’ is an example of his mastery over and interest in matters related to technique. His structural technique is usually suited to his novelistic purpose.

Huxley wrote in the traditional manner, and discarded the experimental technique such as that of stream of consciousness. For him, the presentation of his themes or conveyance of his ideas was much more important than experimentation. He was not an innovator in the field of fictional technique in the sense that Proust, Joyce or Mrs. Woolf were. The borrowed the features of his technique, just as he borrowed his ideas from various sources. He explored various arts, music, painting architecture, etc., to serve his technical purpose.

He is less concerned with matters related to technique and form than with the conveyance of his ideas. However, it would be wrong to suggest that he was not concerned with form or that he neglected the technical novels.

  1. Write a note on language, style and dialogues as employed by Huxley in his novels.

His style is simple, lucid, witty, learned and allusive, and there is nothing clumsy or uncouth about it. He did not make any deliberate attempt at forming a style while writing a novel

Huxley’s style is suited to his satirical purpose and helps him hit his victims hard. The use of symbols is a common feature of his style. Foreign (e.g. Latin, French, German, etc.) words and phrases appear frequently. The style is well-suited to reflective as well as descriptive writing in the novels and is equally capable of conveying physical details, philosophical speculations and mystical experience. Drawing freely on his vast erudition and encyclopedic learning, Huxley employs the richest vocabulary in his works. Technical term: from various fields such as politics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, music, art, religion and science enrich his works. At times, his prose becomes over-burdened with technical terms borrowed from various branches of knowledge, but usually it is highly readable, rhetorical and clear.

In his dialogues, Huxley reproduces the mannerisms of different persons, their stammering or mispronunciation and so on. At times, he parodies the style and manner of other writers and poets.

  1. Comment on autobiographical element in Huxley’s novels.

Huxley was a very learned man having a profound knowledge of various subjects. He was keenly aware of what went around him in the contemporary world and reacted to the various tendencies of his time. He closely observed contemporary social and political reality and portrayed it in his novels. He held a satirical view of the evils of his time that he hinted at in them. Huxley was conscious of the hollowness and moral depravity of the ‘Bright Young People of his age and presented it through different characters of his novels. He made certain characters the vehicles of his ideas. Some aspects of his personal life are also reflected in his novels. Thus, Huxley’s novels may be said to possess an autobiographical element. Some documents related to the social and political life of his time, are in a way a record of his personal life.

Although Huxley did not lack the power of invention and visualization and could create characters and situations, yet he amply drew on his own experiences for the material required to build his novels and his own life provided the pattern of life led by some of his characters. Study of some of Huxley’s novels would reveal the autobiographical element that we find in his novels.

  1. Do you think that Huxley’s characters are Huxley’s mouthpiece?

Or Write a brief note on characterization in Brave New World.

Huxley adopted the form of the novel whereby he could convey his ideas and beliefs through various characters as well as directly. His characters are usually employed as a mouthpiece for expressing his ideas in almost all his novels including ‘Brave New World. There are only a few characters in this novel and they are not fully developed. They have been made to act as puppets moving as their creator makes them do.

Most of the characters in various novels of Huxley are types, and have little by way of individuality. And such are the characters of “Brave New World too. For example, the Director epitomizes the bureaucrat the Controller represents the competent and intelligent man whose intelligence and capability is directed to the achievement unworldly ends, and the savage stands for the type of people who may be regarded as the antithesis of the scientifically conditioned members of society a found in the future world. Lenina personifies for the savage, the conflict between the body and the sprit or the physical attraction and mental repulsion.

‘Brave New World’ a work of science fiction, reveals Huxley’s interest in, and knowledge of science in its various aspects. The picture of the future world painted in it shows Huxley’s apprehensions about the repulsive future of Man if the progress of science goes on unchecked and man continues to remain its slave. Through the depiction of a future in this novel. Huxley has satirized the present. His disgust with the present world and civilization is expressed ironically through the portrayal of the Fordian world of A.F 682. His ideas on and anxiety about the future of mankind based on scientific and technological advancement, have been expressed in the last chapter of the novel. The unwillingness of the savage to accept the new civilized world, signifies a similar reluctance in Huxley and his friend D. H. Lawrence to prefer to the old world of emotions and primitive impulses.

Thus ‘Brave New World’ and almost all his other novels depict facts, events, problems, evils, situations and traditions related to the contemporary world of which Huxley was a part. Most the problems reflected in his novels were related to his own life. Hence it can be said that ‘Brave New World’ like his other novels has an autobiographical tinge.

  1. How does Lenina feel after coming to Maxican reservation?

Or

Give the contrast between the two kinds of life of the savages and the people of the ‘Brave New World.’

After arrival at Maxican Reservation Lenina feels disgusted and finds life of the people in contrast of the life of the people in the ‘Brave New World. She does not like the appearance, dress, manners and the way of living of the savage people. She dislikes the smell of their bodies, their insanitary habits, their semi-rudity, breastfeeding of the children by their mothers, and so on. She watches their primitive dance and drumbeating. She also sees their sacrificial ceremony, and feels disgusted. She wishes for a draught of Soma, the tranquilizing drug, but finds that she has forgotten to bring it with her. She remembers the life in the other place of the brave new world which was free from all the dirt and dust and noise found here. In fact, the contrast between the two kinds of life has been aptly emphasized in this chapter. Huxley shows that, as Paul. W. Gannon points out, “Life on the Reservation contrasts violently with life in the other place. Here pain, suffering disease, filth, and old age still exist in the other place science has succeeded in abolishing anything which interferes with even impairs the physical well being of the citizenry.”

Linda is also unhappy at this new place to see how life here including sexual life is so different from that in the New World. Bernard also feels slightly uneasy but he is not so much disgusted as Lenina.

  1. What is ‘Podsnap Technique”? Explain the working of this scientific device.

Padsnap Technique is a scientific device which accelerates the process of ripening and growth. There is bottling room where the fertilized eggs are kept in a large number in large containers into which they have been shifted from test-tubes for quick growth.

  1. Who is Mr. Henry Foster? What important information does he provide to the newly arrived students?

Mr. Henry Foster is an official of the Central London Matching and Conditioning Centre.’ He tells the students that Feta are classified as Alpha-plus, Beta, Delta and so on. Demand of different categories of men and women is received in an office of the world state from various parts of the world. This demand is then met out on the basis of the order issued by the centre,

  1. By means of which technique, is each type of human being produced?

Each category of individuals is produced by the centre by means of the predestinating and conditioning of babies right from the stage of fertilization up to that of decapitation or birth. This process prepares the unborn child for the type of life he would have to live as an adult.

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  1. Give the names of two games which the children of the Brave New World are allowed to play. Describe the importance of each game.

The children are allowed to play only the games as prescribed by the authorities of the world stale. Firstly, they play the game of centrifugal Bumble-Puppy which involves the use of mechanical device. Secondly, they are allowed to play sexual games, Boys and girls indulge themselves in various erotic activities even in the presence of the people around them. According to the codes of the new world-state love and marriage are not desirable. Such sexual games are permitted in order that the children may he released from the tensions caused by the inhibition of sex-impulse. Anybody who shows hesitation to indulge in sex is regarded as abnormal or subnormal and is sent to Assistant Superintendent of Psychology for psychological treatment

  1. Write a note on the concept of love, marriage, family courtship, caste-system, liberty, democracy, religion, consumption and old men.

Mustapha Mond explains to the students that the private institutions of marriage and family have no place in the world state. Such things as father, mother, romance, love, monogamy and filial bonds do not exist in their realm. Children are prevented from having any emotions at all. Sexual urge is allowed to be gratified without much ado about it The caste-system, democracy and liberty have also been rejected Religion which intoxicated the mind has been done away with consumption is encouraged so that industries may prosper the concept of old. Men retiring and sitting idly thinking has been discarded and the old men live an active and healthy life like the young.

 

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