May 2016 ~ All About English Literature

For Exclusive Notes and Analysis

Saturday, 28 May 2016

Concept of Oedipal Love as a theme in D.H. Lawrence's Novel "Sons and Lovers"

Concept of Oedipal Love as a theme in D.H. Lawrence's Novel "Sons and Lovers"

The concept of Oedipal love is a scientific theory about human nature propounded by Austrian neurologist, Sigmund Freud. According to Freudian Theory it is a manifestation of sexual desire of son for mother and conflict with the father. Freud derives this theory from the story of King Oedipus of Thebes who unknowingly married his own mother and had children by her. This problem of Oedipal love in Sons and Loves is very subtle and puzzling. Now the questions always trouble everyone, whether this love relation between son and mother is of Oedipal in nature or not? Or whether this kind of love is possible or not?

Let us examine how the love relationship between the mother and son develops. Mrs. Gertrude Morel who is married to Mr. Walter Morel is deeply dissatisfied with her husband. Mr. Morel is neither intellectual nor has any moral or religious feeling. Besides he is a hardcore drunkard. There is a clash and temperamental difference between the two. Although they live together physically but they are poles apart in emotional ground. Mrs. Morel is emotionally broken. It was the matter of chance that their third child was coming. This child is not the result of any love between the two. Mrs Morel thinks that she must love it with all her affections when it is born, because the child is the result of hatred of wife for the husband. So she decides to love it more than all her children. A male child takes birth. He is weak, tender and delicate, so the mother needs to care this child. Here at this point starts the growth of emotional love between mother and son.

The mother has begun to influence the soul and conscience of the child. She has deliberately trained her children to hate their father. All children are horrified with their father. They all hate him but Paul hates him most. He wishes “Lord it would be better that my father dies.”, but at the sane time he is confused, feels guilty and says “Let him not die in the pit.”

The elder brother is too older to become the playmate of Paul and younger brother is too younger to play with him. Annie and mother remain in the family. But Annie keeps herself busy in books and in her friends. Ultimately there remains mother who cares for her son, Paul.

Lawrence presents the relationship between the son and the mother in the novel poetically. He lives in mother and mother lives in him on the emotional ground. Paul goes to school and for the whole day she keeps on waiting and waiting. She dreams of his son would be well-established. She does not want that Paul should join his father’s job in mines. 

Paul comes out from the four walls of family when she gets a job at the family of Jordans. And when he meets Miriam, he experiences the close intimacy of some other woman besides his mom. But his mother also wants to possess his soul. Here his mother’s excessive command and her hold on his temperament and emotion existence become a terrible impediment or stumbling block. Paul and Miriam love each other passionately. But his mother does not permit him to love Miriam. His mother feels that this Miriam is too dangerous for her son. But when Paul comes in contact with Clara, she does not suspect as Clara is a married lady. But Paul becomes disillusioned with Clara. He felt dreary and hopeless between Clara and Miriam.

Paul feels that his mother is destroying him unconsciously. So, he hated her for sometime but he could not liberate himself from the strangulating effect of his mother and find himself hopeless. Anguish and agony, pain and love go together in his life. But when his mother falls ill, he increases the dose of morphin to liberate her from her painful life. At the time of her death he whispers again and again, “My love, my love.” Now mother is dead but Paul is not happy. He finds himself in more complexities. To Paul the real world looses the charms of his life. He begins to realise that there is nothing meaningful in this world. Like Hamlet – “Man delights me not”, he is not delighted by the world. Such was the influence of his mother on his consciousness.

Now the big question arises, would you consider this love between son and mother an Oedipal love or not?  A crude scrutiny reveals that Mrs. Morel’s possessive love is based only on emotional plain. This love has no physical implication. Mother loves son because she wants to love her husband which she doesn’t get. She has a love hungry heart. In order to get emotional gratification she loves his son, Paul a bit too much. The love is Oedipal on its emotional ground.

Mark Spilika dwells at length on the nature of three kinds of love represented by Paul’s mother and his two sweethearts – Miriam and Clara. He labels them as ‘Oedipal’, ‘Spiritual’ and ‘Unbalanced possessive’. He calls all these three kinds of love – ‘counterfeit love’.

Paul without realising it, fights for his soul. He ultimately feels oppressed by their love and at last gathers enough courage to reject them from his soul. It has been the very hell of his struggle and has led him to near breakdown. At the end of the novel Paul emerges as a new man with courage and determination to face the life with all its terrors and mysteries.
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Friday, 27 May 2016

Influence of Native Element in English Language

Influence of Native Element in English Language


Anyone curious to trace the history of English vocabulary must assign its true place to the native element. So large is the number of foreign words in English that, from a certain point of view, it might be supposed that English had lost its Teutonic character. When one goes to study the foreign element in dictionary, it will be found to be far in excess of the native stock. However, one should not look over the fact that the Teutonic element still holds a fundamental place not only in the language of common life but also in literature. It is the basis of all good speaking and writing since the foundation or framework of the sentence is always Teutonic.

Moreover, the native element persists even in those writers who are most under the influence of foreign tongues. G. P. Marsh in his book Lecture on the English Language has made such a calculation and has placed the leading authors in the chronological order to ascertain the native element.

Author Names
Native Elements
William Shakespeare
90%
The Bible
94%
Edmund Spenser
86%
John Milton
81%
Addison
82%
Jonathan Swift
75%
Alexander Pope
80%
Johnson
72%
Hume
73%
Gibbon
70%
Macaulay
75%
Tennyson
88%
G. B. Shaw
73%
Galsworthy
75%
T. S. Eliot
74%
Aldous Huxley
77%

These figures are borne out further by a similar analysis of modern writings made by Dr. J. H. Jagger and are mentioned in his book Modern English (1925).


 Besides the use of English vocabulary we also use English grammar. We have to keep one thing in mind that in ordinary conversation or even writing too, the number of words we use is limited and that we do not use more than 3 to 5 thousand words. Mr. Ogden has exemplified this true fact by manufacturing his Basic English containing 850 words only in all. It is possible to talk and write numerous sentences without applying any borrowed terms. But it is almost impossible to speak or to write without using native elements. Believe it or not, the fluency and proficiency attained in the mother tongue cannot be attained in a foreign language how-so-ever well-learnt.

It is worth noting that a larger number of native words are mono-syllabic. Pure English words are the following:
1.            a) Demonstrative adjectives, pronouns and numerals.
                b) All auxiliary verbs.
                c) Prepositions and conjunctions.
                d) Nouns forming their plurals by change of their vowels, such as tooth, foot, goose, mouse etc.
                e) Verbs forming their past tenses by change of their vowels, such as give, eat, run, take etc.
                f) Adjectives forming their degrees of comparison irregularly, such as good-better-best, bad-worse-worst etc.
2. Grammatical inflexions as mentioned bellow:
                a) Plural suffixes ending in ‘s’ and ‘es’.
                b) Verbal inflexions of past and present tenses.
                c) Suffixes denoting degree of comparison.
3. Many suffixes:
                a) Suffixes of nouns
                                Child + hood= childhood
                                Captain + ship= captainship
                                Free + dom= freedom
                                Calm + ness= calmness
                                School + ing= schooling
               
                b) Suffixes in adjectives
                                complete + ly= completely
                                beauty + ful= beautiful
                                quarrel + some= quarrelsome
                c) suffixes of verbs, as ‘em’ or ‘en’.

4. Numerous prefixes, such as al, be, under, on and out.

So also the names of the elements and their changes, of the seasons, the heavenly bodies, the divisions of time, the features of natural scenery, the moods of bodily action, the most common animals, the words used in early childhood, ordinary terms of traffic, the simpler emotions of the mind, terms of peasantry, satire, contempt, indignation, invective and anger are for the most part unborrowed. Similarly, words relating to art, singing and dancing, familiar action, feeling and qualities remain intact in native.

Sometimes we find English words combined with foreign elements. Such words are termed as ‘hybridism’, are in many in number, such as ‘hindrance’ ‘bondage’, ‘goddess’, ‘shepherdess’, ‘songster’ etc. There are results of mutual adjustment in the spirit of give and take during ups and downs English had to experience in its long and eventful history.   
             ~~~~~*~~~~~  
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'Believe in God', This story must inspire you a lot


A man just got married and was returning home with his wife in a happy mood. They were crossing a lake in a boat, when suddenly a great storm arose. The man was a warrior, but the woman became very much afraid because it seemed almost hopeless.

The boat was small and the storm was really huge, and any moment they were going to be drowned. But the man sat silently, calm and quiet, as if nothing was happening.

The woman was trembling and she said, “Are you not afraid?” This may be our last moment of life! It doesn’t seem that we will be able to reach the other shore. Only some miracle can save us; otherwise death is certain. Are you not afraid? Are you mad or something? Are you a stone or something?

The man laughed and took the sword out of its sheath. The woman was even more puzzled: What he was doing? Then he brought the naked sword close to the woman’s neck, so close that just a small gap was there, it was almost touching her neck.

He said,” Are you afraid?”

She started to laugh and said, “Why should I be afraid? If the sword is in your hands, why I should be afraid? You are my husband. I know how much you love me. I have complete trust upon you. I guarantee.”

He put the sword back and said, “This is my answer too.” I know God loves me, and the storm is in His hands.

SO WHATSOEVER IS GOING TO HAPPEN IS GOING TO BE GOOD. (The Gita) If we survive, good; if we don’t survive, its again good, because everything is in His hands and He cannot do anything wrong.

So try to develop trust upon God, the Almighty. This is the trust which one needs to imbibe and which is capable of transforming your whole life. Any less won’t do!
~~~~~*~~~~~

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Thursday, 26 May 2016

What is the meaning of the literary term, "Impressionism"? Analise the term with examples.

What is the meaning of the literary term, "Impressionism"? Analyse the term with examples.

Impressionists always seek to capture a feeling or experience rather than to depict accurate depiction and perfection. Characteristically impressionist painting include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, ordinary subject matter, and unusual visual angles. They were always against the rules of academic painting. Among the impressionist painter van Gogh and Renoir come in front.  Painters, however, aren’t the only artists whose work is impressionistic.  There are several authors who also can be placed in this “school,” including Joseph Conrad, James Joyce, and Henry James.
Impression, Sunrise


In literature, impressionist writers exhibit some special traits:


          1. Narrative style and ambiguous meaning are the hallmarks of impressionistic literature. The narrator gives the readers more scope to think, judge and conclude, rather than depending upon him.
         
          2.  They often describe the action through the eyes of the character while the events are occurring, rather than providing minute details. All of the details seem unclear.

          3. They’re concerned with the “emotional landscape” of the setting. They always want to sketch such a natural background when natural phenomena look pale and weird at the time of suffering and agony of the characters.

          4. They exercise details in such a way that it’s sometimes difficult to see a clear picture of events if one focuses on the details too closely. If readers stand back from the novel he will get the full picture.

          5. They often avoid chronological telling of events. Instead they give the readers information in a way that forces them to focus on how and why things happen, rather than on the order in which they occur.



Joseph Conrad’s The Heart of Darkness is often regarded as one of the prime examples of Impressionistic literature. Throughout the novella, we witness the inner workings of Marlow's thoughts and emotions as he journeys up the Congo River toward the Inner Station and his encounter with Kurtz. In fact, it is Kurtz who presents the major focus on Marlow's attention. However, Marlow never comes out and explicitly tells us what he thinks and believes about Kurtz; instead, Conrad leaves us to draw our own conclusions.



Kurtz, too, is much the same. He also shares his thoughts and feelings about his job and his role in the African jungle and the reader is left to "read between the lines" to interpret his exact meaning. No example could better exemplify the element of Impressionism with the novella than Kurtz's final words: "the horror, the horror." We do not know exactly what "the horror" is and instead are left to devise our own interpretation.

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