June 2017 ~ All About English Literature

For Exclusive Notes and Analysis

Sunday, 18 June 2017

11 Frequently used Swear or Vulgar Words for English Communication

11 Frequently used Swear or Vulgar Words for English Comunication
Swear words are offensive words used especially to express strong emotional outburst. Swear words, love them or hate them, are an integral part of a language. To master fluency, you must master swear words.
But why do people use them? What’s the point?
When you use swear words, they allow you to convey emotion that would otherwise not be as easy to communicate. Swear words increase your vocabulary and give you a wider range of emotions to invoke than if you didn’t use any.
Some swear words are extremely versatile and can be used in many different ways. When you begin to overcome your negative gut-reaction, you may start to see the beauty in all of these amazing swear words.
Of course, it’s important not to overuse swear words, just like you wouldn’t want to overuse any word. However, because some swear words are so interchangeable, it can become easy to just rely on a few swear words as the majority of your vocabulary.
The most important lesson to take home from swear words is to just notice how they make you react and ask yourself why these feelings arise inside you.
Below is a list of the 11 most common swear words in English with the many different ways in which they are used.
It’s important that when you practice swear words that you do it with close friends who can help guide you towards the proper time and place to use them. But when in doubt, use them with people who are near your age.
NOTE: PG stands for Parental Guidance, meaning it’s appropriate for all ages. It’s used in movies as a rating of who should see the movie. The PG tag will help you convey the same meaning without vulgar. 
1. How to Use “DAMN”

A light swear word, can be said on TV and radio. Damn means to condemn (a person) to suffer eternal punishment in hell, but is more commonly used when expressing surprise or disgust.
PG version – darn 
Different Uses
God Dammit: To express pain, sadness or anger.
  • God dammit / damn / dammit
Damn You: To express that you are upset with another person.
  • “Hey man, I lost your phone.”
    Damn you (to hell!)
“Daaaam”: Expression of awe or wonder.
  • ‘Woah, check out the sunrise.”
    Daaaaamn.”
Damn: Expression of dismay or disappointment.
  • “I can’t find my keys.”
    Damn….”
To Give a Damn: To express how little you care.
  • “Hey, what do you want for dinner?”
    “I don’t give a damn.” (non-vulgar: I don’t give a care)
Damn Well: Expressing agreement and encouraging action.
  • “I think I’m gonna call her today.”
    You damn well (better)!”
Damn (Adj): To add a feeling of stigma/negativity to a noun.
  • “That damn teacher gave us a ton of homework.”
2. How to Use “HELL”

Another light swear word, can be said on TV. Hell is a spiritual realm of evil and suffering, often described as a place of perpetual fire beneath the earth where the evil people go to be punished after death.
PG version – heck
Different Uses
When Hell Freezes Over: To express how unlikely it is for an event to occur.
  • “Hey man, do you think Julia will go out with me?”
    “Yeah, when Hell freezes over.” or “You got a snowball’s chance in Hell.”
Go to Hell: Expression of anger.
  • “I want to break up with you.”
    Go to Hell!”
To Hell with it: It’s not important.
  • “I can’t find my car keys”
    To hell with it, I’m going to walk”
Hell Yeah: Used as emphasis for yes/no questions.
  • “Do you want to live in another country?
    Hell yeah!” (non-vulgar: heck yeah)
3. How to Use “ASS”

Ass can be said on TV, but asshole cannot. Ass is another word for buttocks or anus, but is commonly used to describe someone who’s rude or mean. Can also be used to refer to a donkey or mule (burro) in a non-vulgar way.
PG version – butt
Different Uses
Make an Ass: To make oneself look foolish.
  • “Did you see Johnny pick his nose on TV?
    “Yeah, he made an ass out of himself.”
My Ass: No way / yeah right / I don’t believe you.
  • “Yeah so guess who I met yesterday.”
    “Who?”
    “Ethan, from RealLife English.”
    My ass!”
Asshole: A stupid, mean, or despicable person (usually a guy)
  • “That dude just knocked my papers out of my hands and didn’t stop to help or even apologize!”
    “What an ass(hole).”
Ass-load: A lot / Quite a bit
  • “There was an ass-load of people there last night.”
Badass (1): A person who shows supreme confidence, nearly divine ability, and a frequent disregard for authority.
  • “Damn, Chad is one tough, bad ass.”
Badass (2): Another way to say cool.
  • “That movie was bad ass!”
Kiss my Ass: A sarcastic insult to anyone who wants something from you.
  • “Hey you! Get back here!”
  • Kiss my ass.
Ass (Adj): Is also used as an adjective amplifier:
  • “Dude, check out those hot ass bitches!”
  • “Damn, look at those ugly ass teeth!”
  • “Get ready for this hard ass test!”
4. How to Use “PISS”

Piss is a vulgar term for pee or urine.
PG version – urinate
Different Uses
Pissed: Used to describe anger.
  • “I’m pissed off!
Pissed: Another word for drunk (used in British English, not American).
  • “He was pissed last night.”
Piss Off: To express you want to be left alone.
  • “Hey, you want some help?”
    Piss off.
Piss Down Rain: To show how hard it’s raining.
  • It’s pissing down rain” (Check out the video 5 ways to say it’s raining below)
5. How to Use “BITCH”

Bitch can mean someone who whines and complains a lot or someone who’s angry (usually in regards to a woman).
PG Version – bitch literally means female dog.
Different Uses
To Bitch: To whine or complain.
  • “These pants are too big, mosquitos keep bitting me, I don’t like this place.”
    “Hey, stop your bitching.”
My/ Your/ His Bitch = Servant
  • “You’re the boss’s little bitch aren’t you?”
Bitch Out: To yell and criticize.
  • “My wife just bitched me out over the phone.”
Bitchin’: Cool / Fun
  • “Dude, the party was bitchin’ last night!
Something is a Bitch: to be Difficult
  • “Life’s a bitch.”
Bitch Please: As a response to a stupid comment.
  • “Give me 1000 rupees.”
    “Bitch please.”
To Ride Bitch: The middle seat in a car.
  • “Hey Soumo, you’ve got to ride bitch because you’re the smallest.”
Bitch Slap: To slap someone with the back of your hand.
  • “Did you see that?! She just got bitched slapped!”
6. How to Use “COCK / DICK”

Cock can also mean a male chicken (rooster), though it it’s not as common to use it this way. The most common use of cock for rooster is where two roosters fight each other, called cock fights.
Dick can be used to mean penis too, but it’s also short for the name Richard. I have no idea how they got that..
PG version – penis
Different Uses
Cock Block: To deny someone an opportunity to hook up with a girl.
  • “Dude, that girl just grabbed her friend and took her away from.”
    “What a cock block.”
Dick: A mean or selfish person.
  • “That dick took up two parking spots.”
7. How to Use “SHIT”

A vulgar word for fecal matter.
PG version – poop
Different Uses
To be Shit: Can mean both horrible or great.
  • “That movie was shit!” and “that movie was the shit!” are opposites. When “the” is added into the front of “shit,” it becomes really good, the best of the best. Note that there is an emphasis on THE in “the shit.”
Up Shit Creek: To be in an extremely bad situation.
  • “That sounds horrible!”
    “Yeah, I was up shit creek.
(Holy) Shit: Expression of surprise, dismay.
  • (Holy) shit!
Shit-Faced: To be extremely drunk
  • “You seemed pretty drunk last night…”
    “Yeah, I was totally shit-faced.”
Eat Shit: An insulting way to say no.
  • “Excuse me sir, would you mind filling out a quick survey?
    Eat shit!
Shit out of Luck: To have no luck what-so-ever.
  • “Oh no, my cell phone died!”
    “Damn, we’re shit out of luck!
Dumb Shit/ Shit for Brains: Someone who’s not very smart.
  • “Hey dumb shit / shit for brains!
Get Your Shit Together: Calm down, rise above your problems.
  • “Stop crying, man. Get your shit together.”
This Shit: Used in place of stuff / thing(s).
  • [Looking for an email, but all you see is spam]
    “I ain’t got time for this shit!
Bullshit: To express disbelief.
  • “I have three girlfriends.”
    Bullshit!” (B.S.)
Shoot the Shit: Small talk / not talking about anything important.
  • “What were you guys talking about?”
    “Oh, we were just shooting the shit.”
To Be in Deep Shit: Big trouble.
  • “The cops are coming!”
    “Damn, we’re in deep shit.”
Taste Like Shit: Horrible.
  • “Have you tried my casserole?
    “Yeah, it tastes like shit.”
Know Your Shit: To be very smart.
  • “Damn, those Real Life guys really know their shit.”
A Shit Ton (of Something): To emphasize ton (do a lot of something)
  • “I got a shit ton of work done today.”
8. How to Use “CUNT / PUSSY”

Vulgar words for vagina. Cunt is a derogatory term for a woman, considered by many Americans to be the most offensive word in the English language—not the case for Australians, they frequently use the term. Pussy can also be used when talking about a “pussy cat.”
PG version – vagina
Different Uses
Pussy: “What a pussy.” – means you are afraid, “what a chicken” has the same meaning without being vulgar.
Cunt: a stupid, incompetent person. “Shut up, you cunt.”
9. How to Use “FUCK”

Fuck is one of the most interesting a malleable words that there is. It can be used to describe almost anything.
The Word Fuck that will tell you all you need to know about the word fuck. Below there is a semi-transcript of what is said in the video.
Fuck is often used to add emphasis and is the only word that can be an adjective, adverb, adverb enhancing an adjective, a noun, as part of a word, and almost every word in a sentence.
Fuck can be used to describe pain, pleasure, hate, or love.
PG versions – frick, screw, the f word, fudge
Different Uses
Adjective: “Why am I doing all the fucking work?”
Adverb: “That girl talks too fucking much.”
Adverb enhancing adjective: “Those Real Life parties are fucking awesome.
Noun: “I don’t give a fuck.” (I don’t care at all)
As part of a word: “Abso-fucking-lutely.” or “In-fucking-credible.
And, as almost every word in a sentence, “Fuck the fucking fuckers.”
It can be used to describe…
Fraud—”The car salesman fucked me over.” (me fudeu)
Dismay—”Ahh fuck it.” (foda se)
Trouble—”I guess I’m totally fucked now.” (estou fudido)
Aggressionpain—”Don’t fuck with me dude or I’ll fuck you up.” (não fode comigo)
Inquiry—Who the fuck was that? (Que porra que essa?)
Dissatisfaction—I don’t like what the fuck is going on right now.
Bewilderment—What the fuck? (que porra?)
Sex—”Hey baby, you wanna fuck?” (quer transar)
Stupidity—”What a dumb fuck” (que cara burro)
Misfortune—”That’s fucked up.”
Caring—”I don’t give a fuck about your problems.” (estou nem aí)
Agitation—”Hey stop fucking with me, it’s annoying.”
Dismissal—”Fuck off.” (vai se fuder)

10. Use of “Bloody”
·        Slang- Frequently used as a curse word to exclaim disgust.

That Bloody frickin' artic blast pissed me the Fuck Off!!!

·        Used before a word to make it more angry, appealing, exaggerative, etc.

"Bloody hell!! That's great!!"

·        Also means very Annoying for severe effect.

Its so bloody cold out side. 
That Bloody Avik, always getting in the way. 

·        When utilized as an adjective, shows distress regarding subject that follows. 

I'm sick of my bloody boss yelling at me for no apparent reason! I'm running bloody late! Oh you can go to bloody hell!

11. Use of “Wanker”

While "to wank" means "to masturbate", the term "wanker" is seldom if ever used in British slang to denote "one who wanks". It is quite wrong to infer from somebody's being a wanker that they in fact wank (and vice versa), but of course, fair to assume they do in any case. Herein lies the genius of the insult: if you call someone a wanker, it's probably true, but only literally. 

You're such a wanker. 
Oh gosh! How did you know?

·        Someone useless, inefficient or time-wasting, especially in a place or work and/or position of responsibility.

You're a fucking wanker.

CONCLUSION

Swear words can be fun, and funny, when used in the right context. Just be sensitive to the people around you when you say these words. And remember to practice with your friends to find out exactly how to use the different words.

Thank U.

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Monday, 12 June 2017

10 Important Short Questions - Answers from Bacon's Essay, "Of Friendship"


10 Important Short Questions - Answers from Bacon's Essay, "Of Friendship"


1. Discuss Aristotle’s Views on solitude/man as a social animal as quoted by Bacon.

Bacon begins the essay by invoking the classical authority of Aristotle on basic human nature. First, he refers to Aristotle’s view in Politics: Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god.  According to Aristotle, a man by nature and behaviour may be degraded to such an extent that he may be called unfit for society. Again, he may be so self-sufficient that he may not need society.  In the first case, he resembles a wild beast and in the second, he resembles gods. Here it should be pointed out that Bacon is not ruling out the value of solitude; in fact, he is reserving solitude for higher kind of life, which is possible for a few great men like Epimenides, Numa, Empedocles, Apollonius and some Christian saints. Here too Bacon is following Aristotelian view on solitude as expressed in Ethics, where Aristotle prefers a contemplative life to an active life:

“It is the highest kind of life, it can be enjoyed uninterruptedly for the greatest length of time...”

Bacon’s logic is that those who live in society should enjoy the bliss of friendship for more than one reason.

2. How does Bacon explain the first fruit of friendship?

Bacon begins the essay by invoking the classical authority of Aristotle on basic human nature as expressed by him in Politics: Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god.  Here Bacon also follows Aristotelian view on solitude as expressed in Ethics, where Aristotle prefers a contemplative life to an active life: “It is the highest kind of life, it can be enjoyed uninterruptedly for the greatest length of time...”

Bacon’s logic is that those who live in society should enjoy the bliss of friendship for more than one reason. First of all, friendship is necessary for maintaining good mental health by controlling and regulating the passions of the mind. In other words, Bacon here speaks of the therapeutic use of friendship through which one can lighten the heart by revealing the pent-up feelings and emotions: sorrows, joys, fears, hopes, suspicions, advice and the like.

Then in order to justify the value of friendship, Bacon points out the practice of friendship on the highest social level. He informs us that the kings and princes, in order to make friends, would raise some persons who would be fit for friendship. Then Bacon tries to glorify friendship by translating the Roman term for friendship, Participes curarum, which means ‘sharers of their cares’. He gives instances of raising of men as friends from the Roman history: Sylla and Pompey the Great, Julius Caesar and Antonius, Augustus and Agrippa, Tiberius Caesar and Sejanus, Septimius Severus and Plautianus. Bacon also refers to what Comineus wrote of Duke Charles the Hardy’s deterioration of his mental faculty just because of his reserve and loneliness and extends his judgement to the case of Comineus’ second master, Louis XI. The point which Bacon strongly wants to assert is that friendship functions for a man in a double yet paradoxically contrary manner: “...it redoubleth joys, and cutteth griefs in halfs”.


3. What does Bacon say about the second fruit of friendship?

Bacon begins the essay by invoking the classical authority of Aristotle on basic human nature as expressed by him in Politics: Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god.  Here Bacon also follows Aristotelian view on solitude as expressed in Ethics, where Aristotle prefers a contemplative life to an active life: “It is the highest kind of life, it can be enjoyed uninterruptedly for the greatest length of time...”

Bacon’s logic is that those who live in society should enjoy the bliss of friendship for more than one reason.

The second fruit of friendship, according to Bacon, is beneficial for the clarity of understanding. If a man has got a faithful friend, he can be consulted to clarify the confusions of the mind. He calls the counsel of a friend, citing Heraclitus, “drier and purer” than that a man gives himself out of self-love, which clouds his judgement. Bacon then counsel of this sort into two kinds: “the one concerning manners and the other concerning business.” A friend’s constructive criticism of the other friend’s behaviour helps him more than a book of morality. In the matter of conducting practical business, Bacon thinks, a true friend’s advice can also be helpful in undertaking a venture or averting a danger.

4. What does Bacon say about the third/last fruit of friendship?

Bacon begins the essay by invoking the classical authority of Aristotle on basic human nature as expressed by him in Politics: Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god.  Here Bacon also follows Aristotelian view on solitude as expressed in Ethics, where Aristotle prefers a contemplative life to an active life: “It is the highest kind of life, it can be enjoyed uninterruptedly for the greatest length of time...”

Bacon’s logic is that those who live in society should enjoy the bliss of friendship for more than one reason.

Bacon concludes the essay commenting on the last fruit of friendship, which is manifold in the sense that there are so many things in life, which can be fulfilled only with the help of a friend. In fact, at a rare moment Bacon gets emotional and quotes classical maxim that “a friend is another self”. His point is that a man may have many a desire, which may not be realised in his life-time, but if he has got a true friend, his unfulfilled desire will be taken care of by his friend. Not only this, a friend, unlike the near and dear ones and enemies, can talk to him on equal terms whenever situation demands. Keeping all these things, Bacon concludes that if a man does not have a friend, he may well leave this world. That is to say, he is not fit for the human society to live in.


5. Explain the expression “Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god”.

Bacon begins the essay by invoking the classical authority of Aristotle on basic human nature. First, he refers to Aristotle’s view in Politics: Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god.  According to Aristotle, a man by nature and behaviour may be degraded to such an extent that he may be called unfit for society. Again, he may be so self-sufficient that he may not need society.  In the first case, he resembles a wild beast and in the second, he resembles gods. Here too Bacon is following Aristotelian view on solitude as expressed in Ethics, where Aristotle prefers a contemplative life to an active life:
“It is the highest kind of life, it can be enjoyed uninterruptedly for the greatest length of time...”

Bacon’s logic is that those who live in society should enjoy the bliss of friendship for more than one reason.

6. Explain the expression, “Magna civitas, magna solitude”.

In order to justify the value of friendship Bacon brings in the Latin proverb   “Magna civitas, magna solitude”, which means “A great city is a great solitude”. This proverb was coined by a comic poet, who punned upon the name of Megalopolis (a great city) and applied to the city of Babylon as a great city of great desert. Bacon’s point is that in a great city friends are scattered and therefore city life is not favourable for friendship.

7. What is the meaning of the phrase “participles curarum”? Why does Bacon refer to this?
In order to justify the value of friendship, Bacon points out the practice of friendship on the highest social level. He informs us that the kings and princes, in order to make friends, would raise some persons who would be fit for friendship. Then Bacon tries to glorify friendship by translating the Roman term for friendship, Participes curarum, which means ‘sharers of their cares’. The title was given by the Roman Emperor Tiberius to his minister Sejanus.

8. “...it redoubleth joys, and cutteth griefs in halfs”. How does Bacon prove this?

In order to justify the value of friendship, Bacon points out the practice of friendship on the highest social level. He informs us that the kings and princes, in order to make friends, would raise some persons who would be fit for friendship. Then Bacon tries to glorify friendship by translating the Roman term for friendship, Participes curarum, which means ‘sharers of their cares’. He gives instances of raising of men as friends from the Roman history: Sylla and Pompey the Great, Julius Caesar and Antonius, Augustus and Agrippa, Tiberius Caesar and Sejanus, Septimius Severus and Plautianus. Bacon also refers to what Comineus wrote of Duke Charles the Hardy’s deterioration of his mental faculty just because of his reserve and loneliness and extends his judgement to the case of Comineus’ second master, Louis XI. The point which Bacon strongly wants to assert is that friendship functions for a man in a double yet paradoxically contrary manner: “...it redoubleth joys, and cutteth griefs in halfs”.

9. Who was Heraclitus? Why does Bacon quote his saying: “Dry light is ever the best”?
Heraclitus was a Greek philosopher, famous for brief enigmatic sayings. One of his sayings is: “Dry light is ever the best”. Here Bacon calls the counsel of a friend, citing Heraclitus, “drier and purer” than that a man gives himself out of self-love, which clouds his judgement. Bacon then counsel of this sort into two kinds: “the one concerning manners and the other concerning business.” A friend’s constructive criticism of the other friend’s behaviour helps him more than a book of morality. In the matter of conducting practical business, Bacon thinks, a true friend’s advice can also be helpful in undertaking a venture or averting a danger.

10. “...if have not a friend, he may quit the stage”. Why does Bacon say this?

Finally, Bacon speaks of the last fruit of friendship, which is manifold in the sense that there are so many things in life, which can be fulfilled only with the help of a friend. In fact, at a rare moment Bacon gets emotional and quotes classical maxim that “a friend is another self”. His point is that a man may have many a desire, which may not be realised in his life-time, but if he has got a true friend, his unfulfilled desire will be taken care of by his friend. Not only this, a friend, unlike the near and dear ones and enemies, can talk to him on equal terms whenever situation demands. Keeping all these things, Bacon concludes that if a man does not have a friend, he may well leave this world. That is to say, he is not fit for the human society to live in. 



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Critical Analysis of Francis Bacon's Essay, "Of Friendship"

Critical Analysis of Bacon's Essay, "Of Friendship"
As a pragmatic and as an empirical thinker Bacon followed two fundamental Renaissance principles—Sepantia or search for knowledge and Eloquentia, the art of rhetoric. This explains, to some extent, the impassioned presentation of his ideas and views and the aphoristic style of his writing. But the essay Of Friendship is stylistically somewhat different in that it contains passionate and flattering statements along with profuse analogies and examples in support of his arguments perhaps because this essay was occasioned by the request of his friend Toby Matthew.

Bacon begins the essay by invoking the classical authority of Aristotle on basic human nature. First, he refers to Aristotle’s view in Politics: Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god.  According to Aristotle, a man by nature and behaviour may be degraded to such an extent that he may be called unfit for society. Again, he may be so self-sufficient that he may not need society.  In the first case, he resembles a wild beast and in the second, he resembles gods. Here it should be pointed out that Bacon is not ruling out the value of solitude; in fact, he is reserving solitude for higher kind of life, which is possible for a few great men like Epimenides, Numa, Empedocles, Apollonius and some Christian saints. Here too Bacon is following Aristotelian view on solitude as expressed in Ethics, where Aristotle prefers a contemplative life to an active life:

“It is the highest kind of life, it can be enjoyed uninterruptedly for the greatest length of time...”

Bacon’s logic is that those who live in society should enjoy the bliss of friendship for more than one reason. First of all, friendship is necessary for maintaining good mental health by controlling and regulating the passions of the mind. In other words, Bacon here speaks of the therapeutic use of friendship though which one can lighten the heart by revealing the pent-up feelings and emotions: sorrows, joys, fears, hopes, suspicions, advice and the like.


Then in order to justify the value of friendship, Bacon points out the practice of friendship on the highest social level. He informs us that the kings and princes, in order to make friends, would raise some persons who would be fit for friendship. Then Bacon tries to glorify friendship by translating the Roman term for friendship, Participes curarum, which means ‘sharers of their cares’. He gives instances of raising of men as friends from the Roman history: Sylla and Pompey the Great, Julius Caesar and Antonius, Augustus and Agrippa, Tiberius Caesar and Sejanus, Septimius Severus and Plautianus. Bacon also refers to what Comineus wrote of Duke Charles the Hardy’s deterioration of his mental faculty just because of his reserve and loneliness and extends his judgement to the case of Comineus’ second master, Louis XI. The point which Bacon strongly wants to assert is that friendship functions for a man in a double yet paradoxically contrary manner: “...it redoubleth joys, and cutteth griefs in halfs”.

The second fruit of friendship, according to Bacon, is beneficial for the clarity of understanding. If a man has got a faithful friend, he can be consulted to clarify the confusions of the mind. He calls the counsel of a friend, citing Heraclitus, “drier and purer than that a man gives himself out of self -love, which clouds his judgement. Bacon then counsel of this sort into two kinds: “the one concerning manners and the other concerning business.” A friend’s constructive criticism of the other friend’s behaviour helps him more than a book of morality. In the matter of conducting practical business, Bacon thinks, a true friend’s advice can also be helpful in undertaking a venture or averting a danger.

Finally, Bacon speaks of the last fruit of friendship, which is manifold in the sense that there are so many things in life, which can be fulfilled only with the help of a friend. In fact, at a rare moment Bacon gets emotional and quotes classical maxim that “a friend is another self”. His point is that a man may have many a desire, which may not be realised in his life-time, but if he has got a true friend, his unfulfilled desire will be taken care of by his friend. Not only this, a friend, unlike the near and dear ones and enemies, can talk to him on equal terms whenever situation demands. Keeping all these things, Bacon concludes that if a man does not have a friend, he may well leave this world. That is to say, he is not fit for the human society to live in. 


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