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Tuesday, 5 December 2017

Define and Discuss the Literary Term, "Text"

Define and Discuss the Literary Term, "Text"
The word text comes from the Latin term texere, meaning to weave’. Many critics regard text as a linguistic structure woven out of words or signs. Therefore a text is a human product whose form is achieved by its author’s design and its meanings by the author’s intentional uses of the verbal medium. Therefore, a text contains meaning which is open to interpretation. 

The term was first used to denote parts of the Bible studied by scholars, or the body of a literary work which was subject to the scrutiny of editors and bibliographers. Nowadays, readers and critics alike use it to signify any piece of written or spoken discourse, especially when they want to avoid giving value judgments such as literary or categorising something, such as-

1.     Descriptive Text: Based on perception in space. It creates a vivid picture of place, characters, events and things which are often to be found in narratives such as novels and short stories.

2.     Narrative Text: Based on perception in time. It narrates succession of events in chronological order. For instance, fairy stories, mysteries, science fiction, romances, horror stories, adventure stories, fables, myths and legends, historical narratives, ballads, slice of life, personal experience are this type.

3.     Expository Text: It aims at explanation, i.e. the cognitive analysis and subsequent syntheses of complex facts. Example: Essay.


Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Assess Mark Twain's "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" as an Autobiographical Novel

Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is one of the classics in American literature. The novel is apparently a child’s adventure story in form of a bildungsroman, a type of novel whose principal subject is the moral, psychological and intellectual development of a youthful protagonist. The novel remain an eternal favourite as it appeals to both the children and the adults for the adventures that are intriguing and delightful and they appeal to the basic instincts of all regardless of time and culture. The plot of the novel narrates the growth and maturation of Tom; but what is most striking is that behind the narrative of Tom Sawyer, Twain speaks his own life-story. David Copperfield is often described as the autobiographical novel of Charles Dickens. In the same fashion, perhaps, be not wrong to say that Tom Sawyer is a fictional autobiographical narrative of Mark Twain.

Mark Twain was born in Florida, Missouri in 1835, and grown up in nearby Hannibal, a small Mississipi river town. Hannibal becomes the model for St. Petersburg, the fictionalized setting of Mark Twains two most popular novels, The Adventure of Tom Sawyer and The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn. The River Mississipi plays an important role in the novel. The structure of the book is largely depended on the river Mississipi which flows continuously by affecting the life of Tom, Huck, Jim and by bringing before the reader an overall and comprehensive pictures of heterogeneous American culture on its shore. The river has its living presence in the novel. The river plays its symbolic function as well as its structural role most effectively in the novel because of Twain’s personal experiences of the various facets of the river Mississipi.

Twain based the novel largely on his personal memories of growing up in Hannibal in the 1840s. In his preface to the novel, he states that “most of the adventures recorded in this book really occurred” and that the character of Tom Sawyer has a basis in “a combination of…three boys whom I knew”. Indeed, nearly every character of the novel comes from young Twain’s village experience- Aunt Polly shares many characteristics with twain’s mother; Merry is based on Twain’s sister Pamela; and Sid resembles Twain’s younger brother, Henry. Huck Finn, Widow Douglas, and even Injun Joe also have real life counterparts.

The structure of the novel is broadly episodic because Twain composed the novel on three memories of his childhood which came to mind, waited until he remembered some more, and then added them to his manuscript. The episodic nature of the novel therefore suggests that the novel is based on his childhood memories. In fact, in his preface to the first edition Twain wrote “Although my book is intended mainly for the entertainment of the boys and girls are part of my plan has been to pleasantly remind adults of what they felt and thought.” So the novel is the combination of the past and the present of well remembered events from childhood told in such a way as to evoke remembrance in the adult mind.

The actions and the places narrated in the novel become lively as they have close resemblances with the events of Mark Twain himself. The young Twin grew up in a prosperous family but he was sent out to work at the age of twelve after his father’s death. As a young man he travelled frequently as a stream boat pilot. In that profession he became familiar with river life that furnishes much material for his writing.  The Jackson’s island narrated in the novel is an actual island located near St. Louis. The cave that Injun Joe inhabited still exists, as for the houses that Widow Douglas and Aunt Polly inhabited.

So the characters and places and events narrated in the novel have their autobiographical significance; but Twain has transformed them into fictional objects to make Tom Sawyer a classic example of fictional narrative with realistic overtones.


Saturday, 14 October 2017

Samuel Becket's "Waiting for Godot" as an Absurd Drama or Justify the Significance of the title "Waiting for Godot"

“In a universe that is suddenly deprived of illusion and of light, man feels a stranger. His is an irremediable exile…. This divorce between man and his life, the actor and the setting, truly constitutes the feeling of absurdity.”
-         Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus.

What Ionesco insists upon in the nothingness and absurdity of life, so does Samuel Becket: “Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, it’s awful.” Absurd drama is a complete denial of age old values. It has no plot, no characterization, no logical sequence, no culmination. It questions the very meaning of existence, which is full of sound fury but signifies nothing. The term “absurd” was first used by Albert Camus in his famous work, The Myth of Sisyphus (1942). It is very clear from the very word “Absurd” that it means nonsensical, opposed to reason, something silly, foolish, senseless, ridiculous and topsy-turvy. So, a drama having a cock and bull story would be called an absurd play.

The theatre of the absurd is a phenomenon of the fifties. Becket’s Waiting for Godot reflects the absurdist position of the Post World War II human who is lost in the labyrinth of disillusionment. The glorification of life has been slept into history; humanity lost its way.

‘Nothingness’ (ex nihilo nihilfit) constitutes the major concern for Samuel Becket. According to Martin Esslin, “Nothingness is related to an empty space – no spur to look forward.” The play Waiting for Godot is only active in gestural energy: “Lets go”. Martin Esslin in his book The Theatre of the Absurd (1961) claims that, Waiting for Godot does not tell a story. It explores a static situation: “Everything is dead but the tree.” The play is based on the theme “nothing to be done”. The gestural energy of the tramps waiting for the sake of waiting ends in “They do not move.”

En-attendant-godot, the original French play and its subsequent translation in English impresses us in the manner of James Joyce’s Ulysses where the readers experience the same feeling of waiting for something to happen. In the play Estragon and Vladimir wait for Godot who can be interpreted variously as diminutive of God, Love, Hope, Death, Silence and Waiting. The different nationalities e.g. Estragon from France; Vladimir Russian; Pozzo Italian; Lucky English constitute a parameter of absurdity in the general progression of the drama. The play projects a basic nullity of human life.  

The innovative formal design in Waiting for Godot contributes to the main theme of absurdity to a great extant. By all established canons of drama, a good play must have a beginning, a middle, and an end. The entire play in the two acts is woven with repetition; Act II is the repetition of the Act I. In each act we were offered basically the same sequence: the tramps reunite, contrive, pass time, encounter Pozzo and Lucky, receive Godot’s disappointing message, gesturally decide to leave but physically do not move: “Nothing to be done”

Waiting for Godot depicts time as a circular reality. Time is related to the tramps’ hope and despair. We have the impression that the tramps are nothing but the instruments of killing time. Time is a “Double-headed monster of damnation and salvation.” Everything in normal human experience is subjected to tampus fugit (time flies). But time as recorded in this drama is perpetually present; no past and future: “They all change, only we can’t.”

The lack of characterization is the hallmark of any absurd drama. In Waiting for Godot, Estragon, Vladimir, Lucky, Pozzo and the non-existence Godot, do not Grow during the course of the play. They cannot be treated as proper character. Their cross-talks reflect the very idea of nothingness as they have nothing to communicate – just to be in a static position perpetually. “Here form is content and content is form.” At the end of the play we are at the same position as we were at the beginning. The trajectory of nothingness develops in between.

In an absurd drama, speech is reduced to a minimum, In the theatre of the absurd, rules are broken, conventions are flouted.  As Esslin states, “If a good play relies on witty repartee and pointed dialogue, these often consist of incoherent babblings”. Here the language is used just as mere game to pass time – as they have nothing to do. Most of the time, the appropriate discourse is being broken. The logicism of conversation is not been maintained.

Estragon: Well, shall we go?
Vladimir: Yes, let’s go.
(The do not move)

We may conclude in the voice of Esslin, “It is the peculiar richness of a play like Waiting for Godot that it opens vistas on so many different perspectives. It is open to philosophical, religious and psychological interpretations, yet above all it is a poem on time, evanescence, the paradox of change and stability, necessity and absurdity”.


Sunday, 3 September 2017

Critical Analysis of Toru Dutt's poem, "Our Casuarina Tree" or Bring out the Autobiographical, Nostalgic and Spiritual Element in "Our Casuarina Tree"

Critical Analysis of Toru Dutt's poem, "Our Casuarina Tree" or Bring out the Autobiographical, Nostalgic and Spiritual Element in "Our Casuarina Tree"

“Our Casuarina Tree is more than the poetic evocation of a tree; it is recapturing the past, and immortalizing the moments of time so recaptured. The tree is both tree and symbol, and in it implicated both time and eternity.”

-K. R. Srinivasa Iyenger, Indian Writing in English

Toru Dutt has left behind such a glorious legacy that even today we think
of  her as a marvellous young girl who died before her prime after blazing a trail of brilliance in early Indo-Anglian poetry. She was the first woman writer in the history of Indo-Anglian literature. She was also among the first to realize and affect the much needed rapprochement between the Eastern and the Western knowledge. Toru Dutt was undeniably the finest flower of Indian Renaissance that began with Raja Rammohun Roy- the tireless crusader for English education in India.

The poem “Our Casuarina Tree” is a beautiful symbolic poem harmonizing both matter and manner in accurate proportion. The tree stands for a symbolic representation of Toru’s past memory. Apparently it symbolizes the rich tradition of Indian culture and philosophy which played an important role in shaping the poetic and aesthetic sensibility of the poets. In Keats’ “Ode to a Nightingale”, the bird symbolizes the world of art and beauty. In Shelley’s “To a Skylark”, the bird is the symbol of freedom and liberty. Similarly, in Toru Dutt’s “Our Casuarina Tree”, the tree connotes the nostalgic feelings and memory of Toru Dutt. This is the tree under which she played with his brother and sister- Abju and Aru. So the very thought of the tree transported her to her golden past days.

In the first stanza she imagined the rugged trunk of the tree to a huge python winding round and round. The creeper has indented deep with scars up to the top of the tree. One may also sense a similarity between the tree in the clutches of a creeper attempting to sap its strength and the three young Dutts in the grip of a killer disease – tuberculosis. Toru says the flowers of the tree are hung in crimson clusters. Toru tells us that her Casuarina Tree, a haven for the winged, birds and insects, is almost visibly alive, alive with the buzz of bees and with the chirping of birds. This song sung from the tree soothes its listeners and has a tranquilizing effect on men who relax and rest as the bird sings.

The second stanza is replete with the pictorial and visual imagery of the tree and the gray baboon and his offspring. In winter a gray baboon used to sit on one of the branches of the tree watching the sunrise. On the lower branches, the offspring of the baboon used to leap about and pay. Gradually, as the sun rises, the “kokilas” begin to greet the day with their song and a mesmerized Toru Dutt watches “sleepy” cows that have not yet shaken off their lethargy, on their way to the pastures.

While in the third stanza, Dutt establishes that it is neither the stateliness of the tree nor its external beauty that endears to her. She writes:

“But not because of its magnificence
Dear is the Casuarina to my soul:”

The beauty of the tree is no more than an added gift. Its actual importance lies in the fact that it is a part of the Dutts’ existence, a reminder of family ties, of the warmth shared by three siblings. The Abju-Aru-Toru bonding was indeed strong and in Sita Toru mentions, “Three happy children…” sitting in a dark room listening to a story and then sighs because she knows that they will never again “by their mother’s side/Gather”. Like Keats, she had to suffer a lot. She had seen bitter struggle for life and death, untold miseries after the death of her beloved brother and sister.

The fourth stanza is highly philosophical. The poet observes “Unknown yet well-known to the eyes of faith”. Here the term ‘unknown’ denotes not simply the native home of the poet but also the world of the departed soul. A man who has the eye of faith can see the unknown as well-known. Yoga also says that when a man has an unwavering faith in the existence of the divinity through the art of meditation and poetry, nothing remains unknown to him in the universe, because he lives on the plain of consciousness, usually felt as vacuum of the transcendental stage of smadhi. This is what exactly Toru Dutt feels here. Interestingly Toru’s mystical and spiritual approach to poetry is centered to her profound knowledge of great Sanskrit epics and scriptures. The music which Toru refers here is not an ordinary music which we hear in our day to day life; it is music of the soul, which once it is attained, never dies and continues to vibrate with the highest percipience in the mind of the seeker. Toru Dutt is not like the “Skylark” of Shelley, “the scorner of the ground” but she is the “Skylark” of Wordsworth “a pilgrim of the sky” and does not despise the earth where cares abound.

At the end of the poem she absolutely transcends the mortal, materialistic and mundane frame of mind and attains the power of love to overcome the negative forces of life like death and darkness, terror and fear. In this stanza, the words and the phrases like ‘trembling hope’, ‘love’, ‘death’, ‘the skeleton’, ‘and oblivion’ are very suggestive. She means to say that a man of unflinching love and devotion never fears the blows of death. Toru does not express any desire to fade “far away” and “dissolve”. Their Casuarina tree does not make her long for “easeful” death. Instead, even though its “timelessness” mocks the transience of the human world, the tree is to her a support, a reminder of the joy she once experienced with Abju and Aru.  So, in the final stanza, Toru Dutt, aware both of Druidism and the customary tree-worship in India, wishes to “consecrate a lay” in the Casuarina Tree’s honour.

To sum up, the poem “Our Casuarina Tree” shows a perfect blending of feelings and forms, matter and manner. It contains what Eliot means by his phrase “unified sensibility”. It is a combination of both the East and the West. In form, it is very near to the Romantic and the Victorian poems. In theme it dives deep into the unfathomable ocean of the Vedanta and the Upanishad of body and soul, life and death. 


Sunday, 27 August 2017

Discuss the use of Symbolism in Golding's Novel, "Lord of the Flies"

Discuss the use of Symbolism in Golding's Novel, "Lord of the Flies"

Generally, symbolism is an object representing another to give it an entirely different meaning that is much deeper and more significant. Lord of the Flies is an ingenious work of literature in which the author, William Golding, explores the issues of civilization and savagery. Throughout the novel, the author hides powerful messages in some very unlikely places, and Golding's use of this literary technique - symbolism - is the subject of this essay.

One of the most important symbols in Lord of the Flies is the “conch” shell. The conch symbolizes democracy, law and order, authority, civilized behavior. It brings peace to the group of boys. It is the only item in the island that makes them united and keeps them civilized. Finally the conch shattered to thousand fragments when Roger releases the rock from above, killing piggy. The destruction of the conch symbolizes the end of civilized behavior and the beginning of autocracy, despotism and barbarism.

Piggy’s glasses also carry symbolic significance. They symbolize knowledge, logic, intellect and science. Without them the boys would have never able to have fire. They are also lense or window through which goodness and evilness can be scanned. Piggy uses his glasses not only to see, but also to discern what is right, wrong, safe or harmful. When Piggy loses his spectacles, he also loses his clear vision and power of discernment.

Fire also symbolizes survival and destruction, life and death. Fire is first used to try to attract a passing ship which would take the boys back to civilization. The flame also symbolises hope. The boys keep the signal burning and their hopes alive. However, as the fire grows dim, it reflects the attitude of the boys and their loss of morale. At the end it becomes the symbol of rescue as the boys are rescued from the island.
The Beast devised by the boys is imaginary, symbolizing the savage instinct within the hearts of all people. When the boys reach the climax of their savagery they begin worshipping the Beast and attributing inhuman qualities. The idea of the Beast can also be understood as propaganda used by Jack to attain a totalitarian government. The Beast, or The Lord of the Flies, (from which the novel's title is taken), represents the devil, Beelzebub. The devil is the source of all evil.

The island itself serves a dual purpose; it is the symbol of hell as well as paradise. The island itself is a microcosm of planet Earth, alone in a vast surrounding universe with the capacity to sustain humanity, but also prone to destructive storms. Early in the story Ralph and his companions finds a certain glamour and enchantment on the island which is symbolic of Garden of Eden. In the last chapter, the whole island is turned into a blazing inferno which symbolizes hell.

The painted faces of Jack and his “tribe” symbolize man’s return to primitivism and barbarism.

All the characters possess their symbolic value. Ralph symbolizes civilization and order. He shows the sophisticated side of man and holds the position of a democratic leader. Piggy represents the voice of reason in civilization. Clearly Simon is the Christ- figure, the voice of revelation. Jack and Roger symbolize evil. Jack shows the power-hungry and savage end of society while Roger represents brutality and bloodlust. The littluns represent the common people.

The introduction of the dead parachutist symbolizes the fall of adult supervision. It also symbolizes the start of destruction. The appearance of the naval officer symbolizes the return of both adult supervision and civilization.

Golding with his superb brilliance has crafted the symbols in this novel to relate the gruesome picture of the post-World II human generation. These symbols help to convey the author’s message about human nature, with its contrasting poles of kindness and rationality and power and bloodlust. Well-written and meaningful, Lord of the Flies uses symbols to reinforce its telling of the tale of humanity. 


Saturday, 19 August 2017

Greek Influence on English Language

Greek Influence on English Language

The revival of Greek learning in Western Europe at the beginning of 16th century opened up a new vista (i.e. Greek) from which the English vocabulary was greatly enriched. But the pre-Renaissance period was not altogether blank of Greek borrowings. Further in the hands of able writers and thinkers like Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Homer, Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles, the potentialities of this language for expressing accurate distinction have been cultivated to the highest point.

Long before the Renaissance English contained a certain number of Greek words, such as ‘geography’, ‘theology’, ‘logic’, ‘academy’, ‘Bible’, ‘harmony’, ‘ecstasy’, ‘diphthong’, ‘nymph’ ‘poetry’, ‘theatre’, ‘tragedy’, ‘tyrant’ etc.

The contributions of Greek to the English vocabulary mainly consist and in the supply of technical and scientific terms. Names of almost all sciences have come from Greek, such as biology, anthropology, zoology, botany, chemistry, physics, mathematics, astrology, astronomy etc. Medical science has taken a large number of words from Greek such as ‘psychology’ (mind), ‘neurology’ (nerve), ‘hepatic’ (liver),  ‘cardiology’ (heart), ‘phlebotomy’ (vein), ‘nephrology’ (kidney), ‘diagnosis’, ’tuberculosis’, ‘symbiosis’,  ‘clinic’,  ‘larynx’ etc. Many technical terms have been  made by putting  together two Greek words e.g. ‘telegram’, ‘telephone’, ‘phonograph, ‘photography’, ‘lithography’, ‘ophthalmoscope’, ‘microscope’, ‘telescope’ etc.

According to Margaret Schlauch “Classical Greek made a special contribution to English in connection with the study of grammar and rhetoric.” The words ‘grammar’ and ‘rhetoric’ derive from Greek language. Other significant words in this class are ‘parenthesis’, ‘anaphora’, ‘irony’, ‘climax’, ‘bathos’, ‘elegy’, ‘antithesis’, ‘oxymoron’, ‘protagonist’ etc.

Sometimes hybrids have been made by adding Greek suffixes and prefixes to English words. Thus the Greek prefixes ‘anti-‘ (antisocial), ‘hyper-‘ (hyper-sensitivity) ‘infra-‘ (infrared), ‘a-‘ (amoral) have been joined to many English words. The Greek suffix ‘-ology’ has been added to words of Latin English origin as in ‘sociology’.

Now we may note some of the Greek words adopted since the 16th century: ‘alphabet’ ‘drama’, ‘dilemma’, ‘chorus’ ‘hubris’, ‘basis’, ‘theory’ etc: 17th century; ‘orchestra’, ‘pandemonium’, ‘museum’, ‘hyphen’, ‘dogma’ etc.: 18th century; ’bathos’ and ‘philander’. The 19th century saw the coming of words like ‘phase’, ‘acrobat’, ‘agnostic’, ‘pylon’ etc.

Finally, Greek like Latin and Sanskrit, is beyond doubt, a dead language, but it is still effective through English and other European tongues. It has a wonderful capacity of being precise and thus feeding the needs of modern science and technology. Mario Pei in his work Language for Everybody commented “The civilization of the Greeks and Romans forms the basis of our western culture.”


Sunday, 18 June 2017

11 Frequently used Swear or Vulgar Words for English Communication

11 Frequently used Swear or Vulgar Words for English Comunication
Swear words are offensive words used especially to express strong emotional outburst. Swear words, love them or hate them, are an integral part of a language. To master fluency, you must master swear words.
But why do people use them? What’s the point?
When you use swear words, they allow you to convey emotion that would otherwise not be as easy to communicate. Swear words increase your vocabulary and give you a wider range of emotions to invoke than if you didn’t use any.
Some swear words are extremely versatile and can be used in many different ways. When you begin to overcome your negative gut-reaction, you may start to see the beauty in all of these amazing swear words.
Of course, it’s important not to overuse swear words, just like you wouldn’t want to overuse any word. However, because some swear words are so interchangeable, it can become easy to just rely on a few swear words as the majority of your vocabulary.
The most important lesson to take home from swear words is to just notice how they make you react and ask yourself why these feelings arise inside you.
Below is a list of the 11 most common swear words in English with the many different ways in which they are used.
It’s important that when you practice swear words that you do it with close friends who can help guide you towards the proper time and place to use them. But when in doubt, use them with people who are near your age.
NOTE: PG stands for Parental Guidance, meaning it’s appropriate for all ages. It’s used in movies as a rating of who should see the movie. The PG tag will help you convey the same meaning without vulgar. 
1. How to Use “DAMN”

A light swear word, can be said on TV and radio. Damn means to condemn (a person) to suffer eternal punishment in hell, but is more commonly used when expressing surprise or disgust.
PG version – darn 
Different Uses
God Dammit: To express pain, sadness or anger.
  • God dammit / damn / dammit
Damn You: To express that you are upset with another person.
  • “Hey man, I lost your phone.”
    Damn you (to hell!)
“Daaaam”: Expression of awe or wonder.
  • ‘Woah, check out the sunrise.”
Damn: Expression of dismay or disappointment.
  • “I can’t find my keys.”
To Give a Damn: To express how little you care.
  • “Hey, what do you want for dinner?”
    “I don’t give a damn.” (non-vulgar: I don’t give a care)
Damn Well: Expressing agreement and encouraging action.
  • “I think I’m gonna call her today.”
    You damn well (better)!”
Damn (Adj): To add a feeling of stigma/negativity to a noun.
  • “That damn teacher gave us a ton of homework.”
2. How to Use “HELL”

Another light swear word, can be said on TV. Hell is a spiritual realm of evil and suffering, often described as a place of perpetual fire beneath the earth where the evil people go to be punished after death.
PG version – heck
Different Uses
When Hell Freezes Over: To express how unlikely it is for an event to occur.
  • “Hey man, do you think Julia will go out with me?”
    “Yeah, when Hell freezes over.” or “You got a snowball’s chance in Hell.”
Go to Hell: Expression of anger.
  • “I want to break up with you.”
    Go to Hell!”
To Hell with it: It’s not important.
  • “I can’t find my car keys”
    To hell with it, I’m going to walk”
Hell Yeah: Used as emphasis for yes/no questions.
  • “Do you want to live in another country?
    Hell yeah!” (non-vulgar: heck yeah)
3. How to Use “ASS”

Ass can be said on TV, but asshole cannot. Ass is another word for buttocks or anus, but is commonly used to describe someone who’s rude or mean. Can also be used to refer to a donkey or mule (burro) in a non-vulgar way.
PG version – butt
Different Uses
Make an Ass: To make oneself look foolish.
  • “Did you see Johnny pick his nose on TV?
    “Yeah, he made an ass out of himself.”
My Ass: No way / yeah right / I don’t believe you.
  • “Yeah so guess who I met yesterday.”
    “Ethan, from RealLife English.”
    My ass!”
Asshole: A stupid, mean, or despicable person (usually a guy)
  • “That dude just knocked my papers out of my hands and didn’t stop to help or even apologize!”
    “What an ass(hole).”
Ass-load: A lot / Quite a bit
  • “There was an ass-load of people there last night.”
Badass (1): A person who shows supreme confidence, nearly divine ability, and a frequent disregard for authority.
  • “Damn, Chad is one tough, bad ass.”
Badass (2): Another way to say cool.
  • “That movie was bad ass!”
Kiss my Ass: A sarcastic insult to anyone who wants something from you.
  • “Hey you! Get back here!”
  • Kiss my ass.
Ass (Adj): Is also used as an adjective amplifier:
  • “Dude, check out those hot ass bitches!”
  • “Damn, look at those ugly ass teeth!”
  • “Get ready for this hard ass test!”
4. How to Use “PISS”

Piss is a vulgar term for pee or urine.
PG version – urinate
Different Uses
Pissed: Used to describe anger.
  • “I’m pissed off!
Pissed: Another word for drunk (used in British English, not American).
  • “He was pissed last night.”
Piss Off: To express you want to be left alone.
  • “Hey, you want some help?”
    Piss off.
Piss Down Rain: To show how hard it’s raining.
  • It’s pissing down rain” (Check out the video 5 ways to say it’s raining below)
5. How to Use “BITCH”

Bitch can mean someone who whines and complains a lot or someone who’s angry (usually in regards to a woman).
PG Version – bitch literally means female dog.
Different Uses
To Bitch: To whine or complain.
  • “These pants are too big, mosquitos keep bitting me, I don’t like this place.”
    “Hey, stop your bitching.”
My/ Your/ His Bitch = Servant
  • “You’re the boss’s little bitch aren’t you?”
Bitch Out: To yell and criticize.
  • “My wife just bitched me out over the phone.”
Bitchin’: Cool / Fun
  • “Dude, the party was bitchin’ last night!
Something is a Bitch: to be Difficult
  • “Life’s a bitch.”
Bitch Please: As a response to a stupid comment.
  • “Give me 1000 rupees.”
    “Bitch please.”
To Ride Bitch: The middle seat in a car.
  • “Hey Soumo, you’ve got to ride bitch because you’re the smallest.”
Bitch Slap: To slap someone with the back of your hand.
  • “Did you see that?! She just got bitched slapped!”
6. How to Use “COCK / DICK”

Cock can also mean a male chicken (rooster), though it it’s not as common to use it this way. The most common use of cock for rooster is where two roosters fight each other, called cock fights.
Dick can be used to mean penis too, but it’s also short for the name Richard. I have no idea how they got that..
PG version – penis
Different Uses
Cock Block: To deny someone an opportunity to hook up with a girl.
  • “Dude, that girl just grabbed her friend and took her away from.”
    “What a cock block.”
Dick: A mean or selfish person.
  • “That dick took up two parking spots.”
7. How to Use “SHIT”

A vulgar word for fecal matter.
PG version – poop
Different Uses
To be Shit: Can mean both horrible or great.
  • “That movie was shit!” and “that movie was the shit!” are opposites. When “the” is added into the front of “shit,” it becomes really good, the best of the best. Note that there is an emphasis on THE in “the shit.”
Up Shit Creek: To be in an extremely bad situation.
  • “That sounds horrible!”
    “Yeah, I was up shit creek.
(Holy) Shit: Expression of surprise, dismay.
  • (Holy) shit!
Shit-Faced: To be extremely drunk
  • “You seemed pretty drunk last night…”
    “Yeah, I was totally shit-faced.”
Eat Shit: An insulting way to say no.
  • “Excuse me sir, would you mind filling out a quick survey?
    Eat shit!
Shit out of Luck: To have no luck what-so-ever.
  • “Oh no, my cell phone died!”
    “Damn, we’re shit out of luck!
Dumb Shit/ Shit for Brains: Someone who’s not very smart.
  • “Hey dumb shit / shit for brains!
Get Your Shit Together: Calm down, rise above your problems.
  • “Stop crying, man. Get your shit together.”
This Shit: Used in place of stuff / thing(s).
  • [Looking for an email, but all you see is spam]
    “I ain’t got time for this shit!
Bullshit: To express disbelief.
  • “I have three girlfriends.”
    Bullshit!” (B.S.)
Shoot the Shit: Small talk / not talking about anything important.
  • “What were you guys talking about?”
    “Oh, we were just shooting the shit.”
To Be in Deep Shit: Big trouble.
  • “The cops are coming!”
    “Damn, we’re in deep shit.”
Taste Like Shit: Horrible.
  • “Have you tried my casserole?
    “Yeah, it tastes like shit.”
Know Your Shit: To be very smart.
  • “Damn, those Real Life guys really know their shit.”
A Shit Ton (of Something): To emphasize ton (do a lot of something)
  • “I got a shit ton of work done today.”
8. How to Use “CUNT / PUSSY”

Vulgar words for vagina. Cunt is a derogatory term for a woman, considered by many Americans to be the most offensive word in the English language—not the case for Australians, they frequently use the term. Pussy can also be used when talking about a “pussy cat.”
PG version – vagina
Different Uses
Pussy: “What a pussy.” – means you are afraid, “what a chicken” has the same meaning without being vulgar.
Cunt: a stupid, incompetent person. “Shut up, you cunt.”
9. How to Use “FUCK”

Fuck is one of the most interesting a malleable words that there is. It can be used to describe almost anything.
The Word Fuck that will tell you all you need to know about the word fuck. Below there is a semi-transcript of what is said in the video.
Fuck is often used to add emphasis and is the only word that can be an adjective, adverb, adverb enhancing an adjective, a noun, as part of a word, and almost every word in a sentence.
Fuck can be used to describe pain, pleasure, hate, or love.
PG versions – frick, screw, the f word, fudge
Different Uses
Adjective: “Why am I doing all the fucking work?”
Adverb: “That girl talks too fucking much.”
Adverb enhancing adjective: “Those Real Life parties are fucking awesome.
Noun: “I don’t give a fuck.” (I don’t care at all)
As part of a word: “Abso-fucking-lutely.” or “In-fucking-credible.
And, as almost every word in a sentence, “Fuck the fucking fuckers.”
It can be used to describe…
Fraud—”The car salesman fucked me over.” (me fudeu)
Dismay—”Ahh fuck it.” (foda se)
Trouble—”I guess I’m totally fucked now.” (estou fudido)
Aggressionpain—”Don’t fuck with me dude or I’ll fuck you up.” (não fode comigo)
Inquiry—Who the fuck was that? (Que porra que essa?)
Dissatisfaction—I don’t like what the fuck is going on right now.
Bewilderment—What the fuck? (que porra?)
Sex—”Hey baby, you wanna fuck?” (quer transar)
Stupidity—”What a dumb fuck” (que cara burro)
Misfortune—”That’s fucked up.”
Caring—”I don’t give a fuck about your problems.” (estou nem aí)
Agitation—”Hey stop fucking with me, it’s annoying.”
Dismissal—”Fuck off.” (vai se fuder)

10. Use of “Bloody”
·        Slang- Frequently used as a curse word to exclaim disgust.

That Bloody frickin' artic blast pissed me the Fuck Off!!!

·        Used before a word to make it more angry, appealing, exaggerative, etc.

"Bloody hell!! That's great!!"

·        Also means very Annoying for severe effect.

Its so bloody cold out side. 
That Bloody Avik, always getting in the way. 

·        When utilized as an adjective, shows distress regarding subject that follows. 

I'm sick of my bloody boss yelling at me for no apparent reason! I'm running bloody late! Oh you can go to bloody hell!

11. Use of “Wanker”

While "to wank" means "to masturbate", the term "wanker" is seldom if ever used in British slang to denote "one who wanks". It is quite wrong to infer from somebody's being a wanker that they in fact wank (and vice versa), but of course, fair to assume they do in any case. Herein lies the genius of the insult: if you call someone a wanker, it's probably true, but only literally. 

You're such a wanker. 
Oh gosh! How did you know?

·        Someone useless, inefficient or time-wasting, especially in a place or work and/or position of responsibility.

You're a fucking wanker.


Swear words can be fun, and funny, when used in the right context. Just be sensitive to the people around you when you say these words. And remember to practice with your friends to find out exactly how to use the different words.

Thank U.

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